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Everything You Need to Know About Skin Pigmentation

a woman examining her face

Let's Explore Skin Pigmentation 

Skin pigmentation is generally the colour of the skin due to the presence of a certain amount of melanin in it which is a natural pigment that imparts colour to your skin, eyes, and hair. Due to changes in the production of melanin, your skin could become lighter or darker.

Various factors occurring in the body could be able to affect our skin pigmentation like genes that we carry with us to skin damage caused by sun exposure or acne.

Now let's learn about what triggers shifts in skin pigmentation, different types of skin discolouration, and how to treat such disorders.

Causes of Pigmentation 

What would be your skin tone is totally based on a complex procedure in which cells present in the outer layer of your skin are called melanocytes which produce melanin. Inside of these special cells is the organelles which are called melanosomes. Variations in the colour of your skin tone totally depend upon the size, amount, and functioning of these small melanin setups.

Here only 2 types of melanin are found:

Eumelanin and Pheomelanin: Eumelanin is generally black and brown in colour. It shields your skin by reducing  the amount of very harmful ultraviolet rays that can easily break in and carry up very reactive oxygen radicals which could easily damage your DNA and cells and eventually lead to various chronic health conditions like cancer.

While Pheomelanin is red and yellow in colour. Unlike eumelanin, pheomelanin provides very negligible protection against UV rays and can effectively support the reactive oxygen radicals production and the damage they eventually cause.

So what would be your skin pigmentation is purely determined by the level of such types of melanin in your skin. This can fluctuate depending on interactions with other cells or levels of hormones in your body and can be through the impact of certain genes. 

Dive Into Skin Pigment Discoloration

Injuries, Pigment disorders, injuries, and many other changes in the body can cause your skin to be darker, lighter, or change in colour. You may notice many changes in your skin colour in many areas on your skin surface or only in certain columns of your skin. Different types of skin pigment discolouration are hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, and depigmentation.


Due to an abnormal amount of melanin, your skin becomes lighter in color called hypopigmentation.

Various reasons for hypopigmentation include:

Earlier skin injuries due to blisters, burns, ulcers, infection, or chemical exposure.

Many Inflammatory skin conditions like eczema or psoriasis.

Some rare genetic situations like albinism are caused by the absence of a melanin production enzyme.


Due to an abnormally high amount of melanin, skin becomes darker in shade or of different colors is called Hyperpigmentation.

Reasons For Hyperpigmentation are.

  • Age marks
  • Birthmarks 
  • Acne scars
  • Pregnancy 
  • Addison’s disease causes dark skin with decreased function of the adrenal gland 
  • Abnormal use of antibiotics and birth control medication 
  • Laser therapy, cryotherapy
  • Sun exposure


Depigmentation is a condition when your skin becomes white or completely loses pigmentation. One of the common causes of depigmentation is vitiligo which is an autoimmune condition that causes to appear white patches to appear on your skin.

Site of Its Attack

Pigmentation can either affect small patches of your skin or your entire body in one instance. Skin pigmentation can appear anywhere on your entire body. Mostly those areas which are exposed to the sun such as the chest, face, legs, and arms. After the sun exposure, there might be some freckles that fade away in winter as our body tries to protect from harmful UV rays. With time these freckles may become permanent and that damage by the UV rays might not be visible until we grow old and then they start to appear either on your face, hands, or cleavage. In absence of any preventive measures, these can be darker and permanent with time.

Ways To Stop Skin Pigmentation 

You can use various market available cosmeceutical products that are concerned specifically with treating skin pigmentation, this will be effective in suppressing pigment. An SPF 50 + should be used daily for protecting your skin against any sunburn or pigmentation.

Track To Follow For Pigmentation Prevention 

By having a nutritious diet and using the right and trusted skincare products specific to your skin type, you can prevent skin pigmentation. To protect your skin from the free radicals, always wear a good sunscreen and never pick the product specific to your acne scars or for pimples in treating your pigmentation as it makes things even worse.

Please try skincare products that are rich in vitamin C, retinol, and kojic acid to get fresh even-toned skin and will reduce skin pigmentation. They will definitely lighten your marks and the dark spots and will brighten your overall complexion. Alternatively, what best you can do is to rely on natural and organic ingredients like coconut oil, aloe vera gel, green tea and potato juice, potato juice to deeply nourish and heal your skin and will completely fade away the blemishes.

Take Away

Any shift that occurs in your skin tone can be upsetting or concerning. If you are living with any chronic skin condition or any skin disorder that changes your appearance from normal, it's normal to feel embarrassed, stressed out, or frustrated about this feeling of change that is occurring in your appearance.

If something is not turning out good for your body you must feel free to contact any healthcare provider or therapist. Always feel firm in believing that you are not alone in this, and you can always find some ways to lean on others with similar symptoms for the actual support you need.